The update was prepared by Mr J. Fawell, United Kingdom, to whom special thanks are due. This type of electrode incorporates a special ion-sensitive membrane which may be glass, a crystalline inorganic material or an organic ion-exchanger. (1981). Experiment: Ion-selective determination of fluoride The development of ion-selective electrodes (ISE) makes possible the determination of the concentration of ions of choice using selectively sensitive electrode membranes. Fluoride may occur naturally in water or it may be added in controlled amounts. Emi K. Horikawa, Richard Steelman, Thomas L. Flanagan, Edward J. Analytical Letters: Vol. 12, pp. 887-912. Determination of Fluoride in Water . Principle Fluorides in excessive quantities and absence of fluorides in water, both create problems. This article is cited by 22 publications. A disfigurement in teeth of humans known as mottled enamel or dental fluorosis is occured in those, who consume waters with fluoride content in excess of 1.0 mg/L. Some fluorosis may occur when the fluoride level exceeds the recommended limits. In rare instances, the naturally occurring fluoride concentration may approach 10 mg/L. Spectrometric Determination of Fluoride in Water, Soil and Vegetables from *Corresponding Author:Elaoyi D. Small concentrations are beneficial to health, but large concentrations are toxic. Modified Zirconium-Eriochrome Cyanine R Determination of Fluoride. This article is cited by 33 publications. Fluoride in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, is an update of the background document published in the second edition of the Guidelines. Van Loon. Fluoride Determination in Water: An Optimum Buffer System for Use With the Flouride-Selective Electrode. Aim To determine the fluorides present in water. Paul., Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Phone: +2348034523272 E-Mail: edpaul@abu.edu.ng the Precinct of River Basawa, Zaria, Nigeria *Paul E.D., Gimba C.E., Kagbu J.A., Ndukwe G.I. Determination of Fluoride Ion Using an Ion Selective Electrode INTRODUCTION In recent years direct potentiometry has become important as an analytical technique largely because of the development of ion-selective electrodes (ISE). More than 20 ions can be determined by ISE, for example cations such as: Ag+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and anions like: F-, Cl-, S2-, CN-. L. L. Thatcher. Measurement is performed conveniently with inexpensive equipment. 14, No. About Fluoride Determination by Ion-Selective Electrode Fluoride is present in water and many food products. and Okibe F.G. Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, … Be added in controlled amounts, both create problems or An organic.. 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